BIO 110 Final Exam Review Part 1
Disclaimer: Please do Not rely solely on this review packet. class lessons and final exam Review is ongoing. your participation and attendance is extremely important. AS WE HAVE BEGUN THE REVIEW OF THESE QUESTIONS, they WILL CONTINUE TO BE REVIEWED UNTIL COMPLETE remaining portions are filled in. SOME ANSWERS HAVE ALREADY BEEN answered for you below.
PLEASE MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO BE PRESENT FOR CLASS SESSIONS–THAT THE FULL UNDERSTANDING OF THESE CONCEPTS CAN BE ACQUIRED. DURING CLASS SESSIONS, ADDITIONAL SUPPLEMENTAL STUDY MATERIALs WILL BE PROVIDED FOR THOSE WHO ARE IN NEED OF ANY ADDITIONAL ASSISTANCE.
- Know the definition of a cell and the organization of life: i.e. atoms, molecules…also parts of the cell and their function,,,etc
- Know what mitosis vs meiosis is. Also know the stages of mitosis
- Know what sternum is: Breast bone
- Know what the inferior vs superior most art of the sternum i.e. xiphoid process, manubrium
- Know what the mediastinum is
- Know what the axial skeleton contains and the appendicular system contains:
- Know what the major function of the intervertebral discs is: to absorb shock
- Know which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body?
- Know what The “true wrist” or carpus consists of: Carpal., A group of eight short bones united by ligaments
- Know what bending your head back until it hurts would be an example of: Would it be called extension, flexion. hyperflexion, hyper extension etc.
- Know what moving a limb away from and towards the median plane of the body and along the frontal plan is called
- Know what the term ventral pertains to:
- Know what is responsible for carrying Carbon Dioxide: i.e. RBCs WBCs Reticulocytes etc?
- Know the oxygen-binding protein found in muscle cells is referred to:
- Know how smooth muscle is different from striated muscle. in several ways.
- Know what an anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATP per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is called: Glycolysis
- Know what the nervous system major functions except: monitoring changes, integrating impulses, effecting responses etc.
- Know the period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is called:
- Know the part of the neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called:
- Know the point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is called:
- Know what the purpose/function of the autonomic nervous system is:
- Know what the collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called: ganglia
- Know what the term central nervous system refers to: Brain and spinal cord
- Know what the substance released at axonal ending to propagate a nervous impulse is called:
- Know which ions is actively transported through the cell membrane to establish a resting potential:
- Know what the part of the neuron that normally receives stimuli is called:
- Know what an action potential is:
- Know what a neurotransmitter is and Know what a hormone is:
- Know the sympathetic and parasympathetic functions:
- Know the function and alternative naming for the brain stem.:
- Know what the meninges are consisted of and its purpose
- Know what vital centers control heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure and where it is located.
- Know what the rough, thick, leathery meningeal layer is called:
- Know what CSF is and its purpose:
- Know what the hypothalamus is and its purp3ose
- The blood-brain barrier is effective against:
- Which what can be found in cerebrospinal fluid
- If Mr. Drew was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of a C-5. What would you expect to find i.e.: paralysis of the lower extremities? loss of sensation below the level of injury? slurred speech? perspiration in the affected area…What would you expect to find?
- Know what is considered to be the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury? i.e. contusion, concussion, hemorrhage and swelling
- Know where pressure, pain, and temperature receptors are located:
- Know what nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only ar called:
- Know what takes place after axonal injury, and what regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by:
- Know where the largest and longest nerve of the body is found.
- Know if problems in balance, what nerve may have been injured?
- Know which branch of the nervous system involves the “fight-or-flight” response is the role of what?
- Know which system involves the “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system.:
- Know what is responsible for control of the temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst:
- Know which effectors is directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
- Know some example of parasympathetic stimulation?
- Know some example of sympathetic stimulation?
- You should what nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision:
- Which is uniquely sympathetic function? i.e. is it regulation of pupil size, regulation of cardiac rate, regulation of respiratory rate, regulation of body temperature, etc..
- Know has the most direct control over autonomic function is exerted by: the brain stem reticular formation, the hypothalamus, the cerebral cortex, the basal nuclei etc…
- Know what the route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is: sympathetic trunk, phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, sacral nerve, sciatic nerve:
- Know the parasympathetic functions:: i.e. a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction, allowing the body to cope with external threat, constriction of bronchioles, mobilizing storage energy sources etc…
- Know where sperm production begins: in which part of the male reproductive system?
- Know what the cell that is produced by fertilization is called::
- Know what the production of testosterone in the interstitial cells is stimulated by: Which hormone?
- Know where sperm maturation occurs:
- Know which layer of the uterine wall that is shed during menstruation is called: Endometrium
- Know what the external genitalia of the female are collectively called: Vulva
- Know what hormone works with estrogen to prepare the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg is progesterone
- Know what the average menstrual cycle is: 28 days
- Know the structure that lies between the uterus and the vagina is the: cervix Know the hormone that stimulates uterine contractions is:
|65.||Know the chamber that actually houses the hearing receptors is called:|
|67||Know what the region on the retina that produces the sharpest vision is called:|
- Know the structures and functions of the Urinary System:: 69) Know the actions in forming urine: i.e. filtration, reabsorption, secretion 70) Know the flow through the Glomerular Filtration: Blood flows through glomerular capillaries, H2O and solutes filter out into Bowman’s Capsule, Blood enters though the Afferent Arteriole, Is part of the urine formation process at this point,,,,etc 71) Know that regarding the Glomerular filtration process, all of the following occurs: pressure gradient causes filtration, allows blood proteins to filter out into the capsule, Permeability of the glomerulus increases….etc 72) Know the parts of the kidney structure i.e Cortex, Medulla, Proximal, Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule…etc.
73) Know where Glucose, amino acids, ions and other useful substances are actively transported from the tubule into blood occurs. Proximal Tubule
74) Know where water diffuses out of the tubule by way of osmosis: Descending Limb
75) Know where salts are actively transported out of the tubule, but water cannot follow because the walls of the tubule are impermeable to water: Ascending Limb
76) Know where Reabsorption of 2/3 of Na+ occurs: Proximal Tubule
77) Know where reabsorption of 1/10 occurs: Distal Tubule
78) Know where Reabsorption of H2O if antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is present: Distal Tubule
- Know the the different kind of glands and distinguish the difference between thiseof the endocrine system and other systems of the body: i.c. adrenal glands, sebaceous glands, pineal glands, pituitary glands…etc.: 80. Know the hormones that enter target cells and bind to receptors in the nucleus are called: 81.Know the hormones that regulate blood calcium levels: parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
- Know the hormones of the anterior pituitary
- Know what Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are stored and released by:
- Know what secretes the hormone calcitonin
85.Know what Mineralcorticoids are and what they do:
- Know what hormones are responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response? epinephrine and norepinephrine
- Know the gland which can be classified as both an endocrine and an exocrine gland
- Know what Glucagon is and what it does:
- Know the exchange of gases between blood and cells is called
- Know the parts of the respiratory system i,e, alveoli, bronchioles, pharynx, nose etc.
- Know the structure which closes off the larynx: epiglottis
- Which of the correct order of structures in the respiratory passagewaysL pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
- Know where the exchange of gases occurs: Alveoli
- Know what the volume of air that can be exhaled after normal exhalation is called:
- Know what the volume of air in a normal breath is called:
- Know how gas exchange in the lungs happens…by the process of: osmosis? diffusion? exocytosis? active transport? …etc.
- Know how most oxygen in the blood is transported as: i.e. as gas dissolved in plasma? as oxyhemoglobin? as carboxyhemoglobin?. as bicarbonate?…etc
- Know what the primary chemical stimulus for breathing: is dependent on the levels of concentration of carbon dioxide
- Know what a woman who has completed one pregnancy with a fetus or fetuses who have reached 20 weeks of gestation is said to be: Primagravida? Primipara? Prima Gestational? Prima Vitro? …etc
- Know when concerning pregnancy, what the earliest biochemical marker is: human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)