Are You Quiz 6 Ready BIO 110? Material for Midterm Review Part II

I-The Chain of Infection Explained:

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Now… On you own:

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Here’s another peek…How did you do?

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Circle how many you get right?    1    2   3   4   5   6

Six Elements of Infection

There are six elements in the cycle of infection, and all six must be present before the transmission of infection can take place.

Element in the cycle of infection Explanation Common examples
1. Infectious Agent When germs enter the body, they can cause illness
  • Bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa
2. Reservoir Where germs normally live and multiply
  • Humans
  • Contaminated food, water, toys, sports equipment
  • Insects, animals, soil
3. Portal of Exit How germs leave the body
  • Respiratory tract
  • Intestinal tract
  • Urinary/genitourinary tract
  • Open wounds
  • Blood and body fluids
4. Transmission How germs are spread
* Refer to next page for a detailed explanation of how infections spread.
  • Direct physical contact
  • Respiratory droplet
  • Stool (fecal-oral route)
  • Contact with blood/body fluids
  • Indirect contact
  • Needle stick injury
  • Ingestion of contaminated food and water
  • Contaminated dust particles
  • Contaminated objects
  • Insects/animals
5. Portal of Entry How germs enter the body
  • Respiratory tract
  • Intestinal tract
  • Urinary/genitourinary tract
  • Open wounds
  • Mucus membrane, e.g. eye, mouth
6. Susceptible Host A person who gets an infection because he/she is unable to successfully fight the infection
  • Infants, elderly and debilitated.
  • Persons who are ill.
  • Children who are not fully immunized or have underdeveloped immune systems.
  • Persons taking certain drugs that lower their defenses against germs.
  • Persons with underlying disease conditions that lower their defense against other germs.

II–Now pick an Infectious Agent and list the 6 factors of the chain of Infection specific to a Clinical Situation involving that Infectious Agent. i.e. Malaria, Dengue, Influenza etc.

III-Now for some questions: Try These!

1. The condition that prevents an organism from functioning effectively is called a:

A disease

B vector

C benign tumor

2. Infectious diseases used to be called contagious because they can:

A only be caught by animals

B only cause fevers

C spread from person to person

3. Disease-causing organisms are:

A decomposers

B pathogens

C antibiotic

4. The disease-causing organism that causes the common cold is a:

A virus

B bacterium

C protozoan

5. The disease-causing organism that causes acne is a: A fungus B bacterium C virus
6. Malaria is spread via the Anopheles mosquito. An animal which helps to spread disease by carrying the pathogen is a: A virus B vector C symptom
7. A round-shaped bacterium is called a:

A spirillus

B bacillus

C coccus

8. An example of an ectoparasite is the:

A human

B tick

C rat

9. The mode of transmission of the HIV virus causing AIDS is via:

A sexual contact

B blood

C both of the above

10. Antibiotics are not effective against diseases caused by:

A bacteria

B living organisms

C viruses

11. A person who carries the causative organism of a disease but does not become ill with that disease is called:

A host

B a carrier

C resevoir

12. Signs of the common cold include:

A runny nose and fever

B numbness and tingling

C diarrhea and fever

13. A disease caused by a fungus is:

A measles

B tinea

C typhoid fever

14. A disease spread by contaminated food or water is:

A mumps

B cholera

C measles

D Rubella

15. A disease spread by droplet is:

A shingles

B rubella

C syphilis

Your Answers
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Q 9:
Correct Answers
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Ok, how did you do?

You are almost there…almost.

IV–List 10 Infectious Diseases and How they are transmitted.

                        Diseases                                      How they are transmitted

  1. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  2. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  3. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  4. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  5. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  6. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  7. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  8. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  9. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  10. _______________________________. ____________________________________

How did you do?

Ok now try this…

V–List 5 Infectious Diseases and 5 Mon Infectious diseases:

                    Infectious                                                    Non-Infectious

  1. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  2. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  3. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  4. _______________________________. ____________________________________
  5. _______________________________. ____________________________________

Special Definitions:

  1. Pathogen
  2. Pathology
  3. Infection
  4. Infectious
  5. BSI
  6. PPE
  7. Universal Precautions
  8. Ingestion
  9. Airborne
  10. Droplet
  11. Incubation Period


  • Cleaning VS Disinfection: __________________________________________________
  • Disinfection VS Sterilization: __________________________________________________
  • Contamination VS Communicable: _________________________________________________
  • Contagious. VS Infectious: __________________________________________________
  • Direct Contact VS. Indirect Contact: ________________________________________________
  • Acquired VS. Congenital: __________________________________________________
  • Standard Precautions VS Transmission based Precautions: _____________________________
  • Airborne VS Droplet VS Contact: _______________________________________________

Basic Infection Control Techniques


Advanced Infection Control Techniques, Donning and Doffing

Basic Infection Control: List 10 things you can do to help prevent contracting an infectious disease.











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