BIO 230 Midterm Exam Review



1) The study of tissues is called
2. Ultrasound, X-rays, CT, and MRI are all examples of:
3. A group of cells with similar structure and function, together with the extracellular substances located between them, form a(n)
4. The basic living unit of all plants and animals is the
5. Which organ system removes substances from the blood, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fat from the digestive tract?
6. Which organ system consists of hormone-secreting glands, such as the pituitary and thyroid glands?
7. Which of these characteristics of life helps maintain homeostasis when environmental conditions change?
8. Development is a process that begins with fertilization and ends with
9. Given these terms related to negative-feedback: 1. control center 2. effector 3. receptor 4. response 5. stimulus   Arrange them in the correct order as they operate to maintain homeostasis.
10. body temperature of 98.6 degrees F (37 degrees C) is the __________ for body temperature.
11. Which of type of processes illustrates positive-feedback?
i.e… increase in respiratory rate during exercise ?
increase in heart rate when blood pressure decreases?
shivering when body temperature decreases?
increase in uterine contractions when uterine stretching increases during childbirth?
12. Failure of negative-feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis
i.e. may produce disease?
occurs when blood pressure increases during exercise?
can be corrected by stimulating positive-feedback mechanisms?
cannot be corrected by medical therapy?
13. According to the concept of negative feedback, a slight increase in blood pressure causes what to heart rate?
14. To maintain homeostasis, the normal range of values for a variable is what?
i.e. is always below the set point?
may change in different situations?
may not deviate from the set point?
occurs because of positive-feedback?
15. A term that means “away from the midline” is:
16. Which of these descriptions does NOT apply correctly to a person in the anatomic position?
17. The scapula (shoulder blade) is __________ to the lung.
18. The elbow is __________ to the wrist.
19. The nose is __________ and __________ to the ears.
20. Directional Terminology:
21. Pancreatitis describes?
22. A person lying flat on his back is said to be in the __________ position.
23. Given these directional terms: 1. caudal 2. cephalic 3. distal 4. inferior 5. proximal
24. Which of these anatomical terms refers to the ankle?
25. Which of these anatomical terms refers to the shoulder?
26. The only plane that can divide the body into equal halves is the:
27. A(n) __________ plane divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
28. A cut across the long axis of an organ made at other than a right angle is called a(n):
29. In which quadrant of the abdomen would stomach pain most likely be felt?
30. Which of these structures is NOT found in the mediastinum?
31. Which of these statements concerning body regions is correct?
32. The cavity surrounded by the rib cage and bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm is the
33. The lungs are separated by the:
34. Serous membranes can be described:
35. The serous membrane on the surface of the lungs is called:
36. Which organs are in retroperitoneal cavity?
37. Given these serous membranes: 1. parietal pericardium 2. visceral pericardium 3. parietal peritoneum 4. visceral peritoneum 5. parietal pleura 6. visceral pleura A man had a knife wound that penetrated the abdomen, passed through the stomach, and hit the diaphragm, but did not pass all the way through. Arrange the serous membranes in the correct order as the knife passed through them.

38) _____________ investigates the body’s structure, whereas __________ investigates the processes or functions of living things.

39. A muscle fascicle is a bundle of:

40. The connective tissue wrapping around a muscle that is continuous with tendons is the:
41. What is the major function of muscle tissue?
42. What is the smallest unit of contraction in muscle fibers?
43. In muscle tissue, neurotransmitter receptors are located:
44. An action potential is:
45. Acetylcholinesterase is: and what it does
46. Tetanus toxin causes convulsive paralysis by:
47. A person suffering from nerve gas exposure is given atropine to counteract the effects. Why?:
48. Parts of a Long Bone:
49) Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton:
50) This hormone stimulates the breakdown of bone and the increase in blood calcium levels:
51) Which of the following cell types is responsible for synthesizing the organic component of cartilage matrix? 52) Spongy bone is also referred to as _____ bone.
53) The _____ represents an area for growth in the length of a long bone.
54) The first vertebra is called the _____.
55) Which type of bone fracture occurs as an incomplete break in the bone?
56) Which skull bone is not part of the cranium?
57) There are a total of _____ bones in the entire skeleton.
58) The term for finger bones is _____.
59) Another name for the wrist bones is _______________.
60) Which bone or bones does not/do not belong to the axial skeleton?
61) The three major types of muscles in the body are:
62) The muscle that pumps blood throughout your body is:
63) Which muscle helps move your shoulders?
64) Which type of muscle is found in your digestive system?
65) What connects bones and muscles together?
66) Which muscles are found on the front of your thighs?
67) When you make a muscle in your arm, you are flexing your:
68) The term for ankle bones is _____.


79) A group of tissues that performs a specific function is a(n)


71) The outermost layer of the skin is the
72) Burn percentages: Adult, Infant


73) The protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue is
74) The cells producing the pigment responsible for skin color are the


75) What are accessory organs?
76) The bundle of smooth muscles associated with hair follicles is called
77) Perspiration is the substance produced by
78) A burn that involves the entire epidermis and some of the dermis is a
79) The most common form of skin cancer is
80) A sarcomere is? And what it does
81) During muscular contraction


82) At a neuromuscular junction,


83) Function of muscles?
84) A skeletal muscle cell
85) The origin of the biceps brachii is


86) The stages in muscle contraction include a
87) The functional unit of a muscle fiber is the
88) Muscle conductivity
89) Muscle fatigue is due, in part, to the accumulation of
90) A group of tissues that performs a specific function is a(n)
91) The outermost layer of the skin is the:
92) Functions of the skin:
93) The protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue is
94) The cells producing the pigment responsible for skin color are the
95) Types of accessory organs
96) The bundle of smooth muscles associated with hair follicles is called


97) Perspiration is the substance produced by
98) A burn that involves the entire epidermis and some of the dermis is a
99) The most common form of skin cancer is:
100) Functions of the skeletal system
101) The shaft of a long bone is called:
102) Osteoclasts are: and what it does
103) Fat is stored in
104) All of the following are facial bones EXCEPT
105) Which of the following is a cranial bone?
106) The bone that does not articulate with any other bone is the
107) All of the following are bones of the thorax EXCEPT
108) The pelvic girdle consists of the
109) The bone of the upper arm is the
110) The part or organelle of the cell considered to be the powerhouse is the:
111) The building blocks of all living matter are called:


112) The thymus gland is located in the ________ cavity.
113) The umbilicus is located on the ______ surface of the body.


114) The medial malleolus is a projection at the ankle of the:
115) Muscles are attached to bones by:
116) The large opening located in the occipital bone is called the:


117) The myocardium is the;
118) The membrane that lines the chest cavity and reflects back to cover the lungs is the:
119) Which muscle type is striated and voluntary?


120) The cartilaginous nasal septum is anterior to which bone?


121) The nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the:


122) Which are the elements that primarily make up the body’s mass?


123) The largest muscle of the upper calf is the:


124) The muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm and covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the:
125) Which of the following secretes hydrochloric acid?


126) The walls of the vagina are lined with:
127) Which of the following maintains the position of the uterus?


128) The mandible articulates with which bone?
129) The inner lining of the uterus is the:


130) Keratinocytes are the predominant cells in the:
131) Nourishment to cells in the epidermis is provided by:
132) Absorption of damaging light rays is the primary function of:
132) The function of keratin is to:
133) The epidermis is made up of:
134) “Goosebumps” occur due to:
135) Sweat is produced by:
136) The function of melanin is to
137) Hair and nails are modifications of the
138) Layers of the epidermis?
139) Striae are:
140) Synthesis of vitamin D begins with the activation of a precursor molecule in the skin by:
141) Cyanosis is indicative of:
142) Ciliated epithelium is found in ________________.

143) Which type of tissue forms glands?

144) The shaft of long bones is the ____.

145) The membrane that lines the medullary canal is the ____.
146. Spaces, or “soft spots,” in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs are ____.
147. Areas where the cranial bones have joined together are ____.
148. The vertebrae that are located at the waist are ____.
149. The first seven pairs of ribs are called ____.
150. Areas where two or more bones join together are ____.

151. A bone break that pierces or ruptures through the skin is a ____.
152. A side-to-side or lateral curvature of the spine is ____.
153. On the dorsal surface of the body, floating ribs attach to ____.
154. A fracture caused when bone fragments or splinters into more than two pieces is ____.
155. A fracture caused when bone fragments or perforates the skin is referred to as ____.
156) Striated muscle is also called ______.










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