Before You Begin—Let’s Get Something Straight!
SECTION I-GROUP DISCUSSION AND CRITICAL THINKING CHALLENGE.
Note: During the next class meet, you will be randomly assigned one of these groups to discuss during class. Then you will be given the task to compare them against the terms in each group assignment. The fun doesn’t stop there though. While teaching, and reinforcing one another, you will also be preparing to present each topic of discussion and critical thinking topic.
Certainly, you are encouraged, as always to draw up questions of your own and present them as well. MUST BE WITHIN THE CONTENT PROVIDED BELOW. Each group will then compete for 5 points towards the next quiz. EVERYONE MUST BE ABLE TO HOLD THEIR OWN WEIGHT IN THE GROUP. NO BYSTANDERS!
Group A–What is the difference between Conducting Zone and Respiratory Zone?
Conducting zone: it is a zone which conducts air and allows it to pass in and out of the lungs. This zone is made up of nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
Respiratory zone: it is a zone where actual respiration and gas exchange takes place. This zone is made up of alveoli, alveolar ducts, and respiratory bronchioles
Group B–What is the difference between internal Expiration and External Respiration?
It has been a common mistake that people more often believe that respiration is just taking oxygen in and letting carbon dioxide out of the body. However, there are many more steps and processes involved than those in respiration. Respiration mainly has two processes known as the external and internal; in other words, breathing and actual respiration respectively. Both these are interrelated yet, different physiological processes. Breathing occurs first, and respiration takes place next. The places at which these two processes take place are different as well as the pathways of internal and external respiration are much different. Therefore, it would be interesting to discuss the differences in detail about both these processes.
Internal respiration is the process of breaking down food in the presence of oxygen at acellular level to produce energy. Internal respiration is an active process, as it requires energy. It uses oxygen to produce energy and produces carbon dioxide and water as waste products.
Internal respiration is a metabolic process that takes place in cells, where glucose from food reacts with breathing oxygen to produce biochemical energy in the form of Adenosine triphosphate, abbreviated as ATP. This energy is extremely useful to perform all the biological processes except thinking or dreaming. In addition to glucose, amino acids and fatty acids are also commonly used nutrients for respiration with cellular oxygen.
Water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide are waste products of internal respiration. Mostly water and carbon dioxide move out of the body via breathing, while ammonia excretes with urine. Respiration is an involuntary process, which the animal cannot control. However, internal respiration could be either aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration involves oxygen in the process, whereas there is no oxygen involved in anaerobic process.
External respiration is the process of taking oxygen into and expelling carbon dioxide from the body. External respiration is essential for life as it supplies oxygen to extract energy from food via internal or cellular respiration. Additionally, it removes carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of respiration. In addition, external respiration removes excess water from the body through exhalation.
External respiration is a physical process consisting of inhalation, exhalation, and relaxation. Inhalation is an active process while exhalation is passive. External respiration involves two stages known as ventilation and gas exchange. Ventilation is the movement of the air in and out of the lungs. Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli of the lungs. Two things happen during gas exchange; oxygen goes into blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out into lungs.
External respiration is a voluntary action, which the animal can control. However, animals do not always voluntarily breathe, but it is an ever happening involuntary process as the centers in the brainstem automatically regulate the external respiration.
Hey, Let’s Look at it this way, why don’t we?
Internal and External Respiration from a different prospective:
- External respiration is a mechanical process, but internal respiration is a chemical process.
- External respiration is mainly the bulk exchange of gases in and out of the body, while internal respiration is the process of breaking down of nutrients with oxygen to produce energy.
- External respiration occurs between body and external environment whereas internal respiration takes place in cellular level.
- External respiration involves both active and passive processes, but internal respiration is only an active process.
- External respiration is both voluntary and involuntary, while internal respiration is always an involuntary process.
- Internal respiration produces energy and waste products, but nothing except gas exchange and voice producing in external respiration takes place.
Group C—What is the Difference Between Inhalation and Exhalation
What are the difference between exhalation and inhalation?
Well in essence, the difference of inhalation and exhalation are, inhalation is inhaling the oxygen or the air, and exhalation is exhaling or breathe out.
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Respiration is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells of the body and external environment. According to physiology of the respiratory system, the process of respiration can be divided into two types; cellular respiration and external respiration. The cellular respiration includes the intracellular metabolic processes take place within the mitochondria. External respiration is the entire process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and body cells. However, the respiratory system does not involve in all steps of respiration, but only involve in the initial steps including the ventilation of exchange of gasses between the lungs and blood. The rest of the steps is carried out by the circulatory system that includes the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues via blood, and diffusion of gasses across the systemic capillaries. Inhalation and exhalation are the processes of ventilation (pulmonary ventilation), which govern the movement of air between the environment and alveoli in lungs.
Inhalation and Exhalation
Inhalation is an active process of which a person takes air into the body through the mouth and nose and pushes the air into the lungs. Inhalation is controlled by the brain. During the process of inhalation, the diaphragm and intercostal muscle contractions cause to enlarge the thoracic cavity. This creates a slight vacuum condition due to decreasing air pressure in lungs. Due to the pressure gradient between the atmosphere and thoracic cavity, air moves into lungs via trachea. When the air pressure equalizes, the inhalation stops.
Exhalation is the process of moving out of air from the lung to the outer atmosphere during ventilation. It is a passive process which does not involve muscle contractions. Although it is passive, it can be done actively by contracting the muscles of the wall of the chest and abdomen. During the process of exhalation, the diaphragm and intercostal muscle relax, causing thoracic cavity to decrease in size. It eventually creates a high pressure in the lung due to the reduction of volume and thus the resulted pressure gradient causes air to move out from the lungs through the trachea to atmosphere.
Hey, Let’s Look at it this way, why don’t we?
Inhalation and Exhalation from a different prospective:
- Inhalation is the intake of air into lungs, whereas exhalation is the pushing out of air from lungs.
- Inhalation is an active process, whereas exhalation is a passive process.
- Exhalation occurs followed by the inhalation.
- The diaphragm and intercoastal muscle contract during the inhalation, while they relax during the exhalation.
- Inhalation causes to increase the air pressure in the thoracic cavity, whereas exhalation causes to increase it.
- Volume of lung increases during the inhalation, while it decreases during the exhalation.
Group D–What is the Difference Between Breathing and Cellular Respiration?
Though, in physiology, there is a well-defined difference between breathing and cellular respiration, many people used think that respiration and breathing are two equal terms to describe the oxygen intake and carbon dioxide elimination that take place in the respiratory system. In physiology, respiration has an extensive meaning. In this article, we focus on the difference between the two steps of the respiration process namely; breathing and cellular respiration. Respiration is a basic process of life and common to all plants and animals in the world. It is mainly characterized by the utilization of food molecules to produce energy and exchange of gasses. Based on the oxygen requirement, respiration is broadly categorized into two types; (a) aerobic respiration, which requires oxygen, and (b) anaerobic respiration, which does not require oxygen.
What is Cellular Respiration?
As the name implies, the cellular respiration takes place within the cells of organisms. Hence, it is often referred to as internal respiration. Cellular respiration involved biochemical processes. In this process, food molecules are decomposed by using oxygen to form energy (ATP) which is essential for all cellular activities. While deriving energy, water and carbon dioxides are produced as by-products and carbon dioxide is expelled from the body as a waste through breathing. Because of the release of energy, cellular respiration is known as a metabolic process. Cellular respiration can be measured by taking the ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed. This ratio is called the respiratory quotient (RQ) and it varies based on the foodstuff consumed.
What is Breathing?
Breathing is the process of exchanging O2 and CO2 between the external environment and the tissue cells. Breathing is a physical process and does not release energy, unlike the cellular respiration. The intake of air is called inhalation and expel of air is called exhalation. During the inhalation, O2 is diffused into the blood and during the exhalation, CO2, that is formed by the cellular respiration is expelled as a waste. Both cellular respiration and breathing are interrelated processes and depend on each other.
Hey, Let’s Look at it this way, why don’t we?
Cellular Respiration and Breathing from a different prospective:
- Breathing is also known as external respiration as it occurs outside the cells. Cellular respiration is called internal respiration because it occurs inside the cells.
- Breathing is a physical process, whereas cellular respiration is a biochemical process.
- During the breathing, exchange of gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide) take place. Glucose is decomposed to carbon dioxide and water during cellular respiration.
- Energy is released in cellular respiration, unlike in breathing.
- Cellular respiration requires enzymes, but breathing does not.
Group E–What is the difference between inspiration and expiration?
Expiration expels air from the lungs. In most lung diseases, the air breathed in is not completely or easily exhaled. Inspiration brings air into the lungs. Expiration expels air from the lungs. In most lung diseases, the air breathed in is not completely or easily exhaled.
Hey, Let’s Look at it this way, why don’t we?
Inspiration and Expiration from a different prospective:
- It is an active process.
- Contraction of external intercostals muscles and relaxations and internal intercostals muscles occur.
- Rib cages move forward and outward.
- Diaphragm contracts and becomes flattened.
- Increase in volume of thoracic cavity.
- Air pressure in lungs is less than atmospheric pressure.
- Intake of air into lungs.
- It is an passive process.
- Relaxations of external intercostals muscles and Contraction of internal intercostals muscles occur.
- Rib cages move downward and inward.
- Diaphragm relaxes and becomes original dome shaped.
- Decrease in volume of thoracic cavity.
- Air pressure in lungs is higher than atmospheric pressure.
- Expulsion of air from the lungs.
Group F–What is the Difference Between Ventilation & Perfusion?
- Ventilation is the goal of breathing. During inhalation, air is drawn into the lungs through the mouth and nose and into the lungs’ tiny air sacs, called alveoli. It is in the alveoli where ventilation must be achieved. Ventilation occurs when these millions of tiny alveoli are filled with air. Illness and/or injury can make ventilation difficult. Someone with broken ribs may be breathing but not ventilating well. They can’t take a normal filling breath because it is painful to breathe.
Ventilation is the goal of breathing.
- Perfusion is the adequate oxygenation of all the body tissues. This is accomplished within the cardiovascular system at the capillaries. Capillaries allow the red blood cells to flow in single file. In the lungs, every alveoli has its own capillary to transfer oxygen to the blood and receive waste to be exhaled. Perfusion occurs when the red blood cells transfer their oxygen into the tissues at the capillary level. This process is continuous.
Red blood cells carry oxygen on the hemoglobin molecule.
- Respiration is a vital function that utilizes ventilation and perfusion to help maintain human life. Without either one, respiration cannot continue. A person breaths to draw in fresh oxygen and expel waste. The fresh oxygen is transferred to the red blood cells for distribution throughout the body. The red blood cells travel into the capillaries and move in single file to allow the oxygen to be transferred into the cells and tissues to maintain life.
Alveoli resemble grapes hanging on the vine.
- Ventilation and perfusion deal with oxygen in different ways to maintain life. Ventilation takes care of the supply by bringing in a continuous flow of oxygen. Perfusion utilizes the supply on hand by distributing the oxygen to all the body cells to satisfy demand. In short, ventilation supplies the oxygen and perfusion distributes that supply to satisfy demand.
Ventilation and perfusion are each needed to maintain life.
Group G: What is difference in hypoxia and hypoxemia?
The difference Between Hypoxia and Hypoxemia. Although many medical professional, as well as scientists, use hypoxia and hypoxemia interchangeably, they do not mean the same. Hypoxemia is a condition where the oxygen content in the arterial blood is below normal while hypoxia is a failure of oxygen supply to tissues.
Hey, Let’s Look at it this way, why don’t we?
Hypoxia and Hypoxemia from a different prospective:
Hypoxia vs Hypoxemia
Hypoxia and hypoxemia are two different conditions that are often used to indicate the same set of symptoms. In reality, they are different from each other in a number of ways. So, next time somebody thinks he is talking about hypoxemia and is actually talking about hypoxia, you will know how to correct them! Difference In Symptoms
The severity in both cases depends on the amount of air pressure the patient is receiving. A patient with mild hypoxemia may suffer from restlessness, confusion, anxiety or headaches. Patients with acute forms of the disease will suffer from increased blood pressure, apnea or tachycardia. Patients may also suffer from hypotension or irregular contractions of the ventricles. In extreme cases, the patient may even go into a coma. On the other hand, patients suffering from hypoxia have slightly different symptoms. These may include severe headaches, seizures and even death in extreme cases. As with hypoxemia, the degree of severity in the symptoms actually depends on the seriousness of the condition.
Difference In Reasons
Hypoxemia is usually caused by respiratory disorders. However, it may also be caused by the reasons below: 1.Hypoventilation-symbolized by decreased levels of oxygen in the blood and increased levels of carbon dioxide. 2. A decrease in the low inspired oxygen content in the blood 3.It may also be caused by a left to right shunt! 4.It may also be caused by ventilation and perfusion mismatch or diffusion impairment. Hypoxia, on the other hand, may be caused by a variety of factors including cardiac arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning or severe headaches. It may also be induced by suffocation or at high altitudes.
Difference in Treatment
There are differences in the way the two conditions are tackled. For instance, since hypoxia can escalate into a life threatening condition within moments, it should be promptly treated. The patient will need life support measures, though not the machines involved in all cases. The patient is usually put on intravenous support and may need to take medications that prevent seizures and a high blood pressure. In contrast, a patient suffering from hypoxemia may be advised on lying flat on the ground because this increases the supply of oxygen. In more severe cases, the patient may need to be put on mechanical ventilation like CPAP. The patient may also be put on oxygen while he is on CPAP. Alternatively, the patient may also be provided packed red blood cells. This increases the supply of oxygen in the blood. However, it cannot be given to patients who suffer from polycythemia or an abnormally high supply of red blood cells.
- Patients suffering from hypoxemia have restlessness, tachycardia or a high blood pressure. Patients with hypoxia suffer from sudden headaches, seizures and even death in some cases. 2. The reasons behind hypoxemia are usually long standing-whether it is a respiratory problem or a condition of the heart. Hypoxia is caused mainly by environmental conditions-for instance suffocation, high altitudes or even strangulation. 3. Treatment for hypoxia includes provision of immediate and fast life support mechanisms. Hypoxemia is treated by a variety of oxygen increasing procedures and red blood cell transfers.
All Groups: A, B, C, D, E, F, G.
Ok, now that we have the idea of some key concepts….lets mix and match them now.
What is the Different Between eacj of thee items above. i.e. Inspiration VS. Inhalation, Expiration Vs, Exhalation. Respiration Vs. Ventilation etc.
SECTION II-Jeopardy Question & Answer
So, you didn’t get that 5 points opportunity, No Problem…that’s right, No Problem…Stay in you groups and you will be randomly assigned 25 questions from the below question bank. Answer them all right in the group and that’s right…5 points towards your next quiz.
SPECIAL NOTE: IF YOUR GROUP WINS BOTH SECTIONS IN THE COMPETITION…YOU WILL NOT HAVE TO TAKE THE NEXT RESPIRATORY QUIZ. YOU HEARD ME RIGHT, YOU WILL BE AWARDED 100 POINTS! HAPPY STUDIESJ
Respiratory System Critical Thinking–Discussion Topics
- Which of the following muscles contracts during quiet expiration? a. Diaphragm b. Internal intercostals c. External intercostals d. Pectoralis minor e. None of the above
- Pulmonary surfactant: a. Prevents alveolar collapse b. Reduces alveolar surface tension c. Increases lung compliance d. Is secreted by type II alveolar cells e. All of the above
- The smallest airways in the conducting zone are the: a. Pharynxes b. Alveolar ducts c. Pulmonary capillaries d. Bronchi e. Terminal bronchioles
- Which of the following is NOT a function of the conducting zone of the respiratory system? a. Humidifying air b. Warming air c. Gas exchange d. Mucus secretion e. Filtration
- Which of the following is a component of pulmonary gas exchange? a. Ventilation b. O2 transport c. Diffusion of N2 from alveoli to blood d. Diffusion of CO2 from tissues to blood e. Production of ATP within cellular mitochondria
- A rise in blood PCO2 causes all of the following EXCEPT: a. An increase in the H+ concentration b. A rise in bicarbonate concentration c. A rise in the concentration of carbaminohemoglobin d. A decrease in pH e. An increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
- During hyperventilation, which of the following would be expected to happen? a. An increase in the Po2 of arterial blood b. An increase in the PCO2 of arterial blood c. An increase in the acidity of arterial blood d. An increase in the bicarbonate concentration of arterial blood e. All of the above
- Which of the following is NOT a potential cause of metabolic acidosis? a. Severe vomiting b. Severe diarrhea c. Starvation d. Diabetic crisis e. Kidney disease 9. In which of the following will the partial pressure of oxygen be the highest? a. Right atrium b. Inferior vena cava c. Pulmonary artery d. Femoral artery e. Mitochondria
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The space just superior to the epiglottis is known as the glottis. b. The anterior portion of the hard palate is made of the horizontal plates of the ethmoid bone. c. The entire pharynx is lined by respiratory epithelium d. The nasopharynx contains the palatine tonsil. e. None of the above
- Which of the following reactions occur(s) in the pulmonary capillaries? a. HHb +O2 à HbCO2 + H+ b. HCO3- + H+ à H2CO3 c. H2O + CO2 à H2CO3 d. HCO3- + Hb à HbO2 e. More than one of the above 12. Which of the following refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between systemic tissues and systemic capillaries? a. Pulmonary ventilation b. External respiration c. Internal respiration d. Cellular respiration e. Acellular respiration
- All of the following are functions of the respiratory system EXCEPT: a. Regulation of plasma pH b. Regulation of plasma [H+] c. Regulation of plasma Pco2 d. Regulation of plasma Po2 e. None of the above
- Which of the following is the most INFERIOR? a. Epiglottis b. Cricoid cartilage c. Glottis d. False vocal cords e. True vocal cords
- All of the following occur in the conducting zone EXCEPT: a. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide b. Filtration of particles from inspired air c. Filtration of pathogens from inspired air d. Humidification of inspired air e. 2 of the above
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The last tracheal cartilage is referred to as the carina. b. There are more secondary bronchi on the left than on the right. c. The last bronchioles without alveoli are known as respiratory bronchioles. d. The anterior portion of the hard palate is composed of the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. e. The inferior portion of the nasal septum is referred to as the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
- Which of the following is NOT TRUE? a. The Eustachian tubes link the nasopharynx and the middle ear cavities. b. During swallowing the uvula and soft palate prevent food and drink from entering the oropharynx. c. The number of alveolar ducts in the lungs is less than the number of alveoli in the lungs. d. The apex of the right lung is deep to the right clavicle. e. The lungs are lined by the visceral pleura.
- Which of the following is ALWAYS TRUE? a. Intrapulmonary pressure > Atmospheric pressure b. Atmospheric pressure > Intrapulmonary pressure c. Intrapulmonary pressure > Intrapleural pressure d. Intrapleural pressure > Intrapulmonary pressure e. Intrapleural pressure > Atmospheric pressure 19. Surfactant is produced by __________________ and acts to ________________ alveolar surface tension. a. increase b. decrease
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The elastic recoil of the lungs assists quiet expiration. b. Plasma levels of chloride will be higher in systemic veins than in systemic arteries. c. Approximately 20% of the oxygen in the bloodstream is dissolved in plasma. d. Approximately 80% of the carbon dioxide in the bloodstream is bound to hemoglobin and referred to as carbaminohemoglobin. e. An inability to generate carbonic anhydrase is the cause of infant respiratory distress syndrome.
- Which of the following reactions is more likely to occur in pulmonary capillaries than in systemic capillaries? a. HHb + O2 ® HbO2 + H+ b. H+ + HbO2 ® HHb + O2 c. HHb + CO2 ® HbCO2 + H+ d. HbCO2 ® HCO3- + H+
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. Pneumothorax can result in atalectasis b. Hemoglobin has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than for oxygen c. The majority of CO2 in the blood is in the form of HCO3- d. The chloride shift refers to the exchange of HCO3- and Cl- between an RBC and the plasma e. All of the above
- All of the following muscles would contract while trying to blow out a candle EXCEPT: a. Internal intercostals b. Rectus abdominus c. Transverse abdominus d. Latissimus dorsi e. Diaphragm
- During which of the following activities would the stomach experience the greatest downward force? a. Quiet inspiration b. Forced inspiration c. Quiet expiration d. Forced expiration 35. In respiratory acidosis, plasma pH will: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change 37. A person that is hyperventilating will have a plasma pH that is ___________ the plasma pH of a person who is hypoventilating. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- Epinephrine will __________ bronchioles causing resistance to ________ and airflow to _____________. a. Dilate – decrease – increase b. Constrict – increase – decrease c. Dilate – increase – decrease d. Constrict – decrease – increase
- The majority of CO2 is transported in the blood stream… a. As carbon monoxide b. Attached to the outer surface of RBCs c. Attached to the inner surface of RBCs d. Attached to hemoglobin e. As bicarbonate
- The number of lobes in the right lung is ______________ the number of lobes in the left lung. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- The diameter of a bronchus is ________________ the diameter of a bronchiole. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as 42. When the diaphragm contracts, the pressure in the abdominal cavity will: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change
- In order for inspiration to occur, atmospheric pressure must be _____________ intrapulmonary pressure. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as 44. Which of the following muscles is LEAST involved in respiration? a. Diaphragm b. Pectoralis major c. External intercostals d. Internal intercostals e. Sternocleidomastoids
- As blood travels from a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, its plasma levels of bicarbonate will: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change 46. All of the following are TRUE EXCEPT: a. The posterior nasal septum is composed of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer. b. The maxillary sinuses produce mucus. c. The conchae increase the turbulence of airflow. d. The auditory tubes connect the nasal cavity to the inner ear cavities. e. The nasopharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsil.
- As blood travels from the right ventricle all the way to the left atrium, the saturation levels of hemoglobin will: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Stay the same
- Asthma can be characterized by mucous plugs that cause the lumens of bronchi to narrow. This narrowing would cause the resistance in those bronchi to: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change
- Relaxation of the diaphragm causes thoracic volume to: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change
- All of the following are causes of metabolic acidosis EXCEPT: a. Diarrhea b. Vomiting c. Diabetes mellitus d. Starvation e. Renal disease
- All of the following is NOT TRUE? a. The left primary bronchus is longer and more horizontal than the right primary bronchus. b. Central chemoreceptors are located in the aortic arch. c. The inflation reflex refers to the phenomenon seen in infants where over stretching the lungs results in expiration. d. The formation of carbonic acid is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. e. PO2 is higher in systemic arteries than in systemic veins.
- Kartagener syndrome is a rare genetic disorder in which cilia are unable to move. This would cause one’s ability to move mucus thru the trachea to: a. Increase b. Decrease c. Not change
- Simon breathed in a molecule of helium gas. As it traveled towards his alveoli, which of the following would it pass LAST? a. Lobar bronchus b. Segmental bronchus c. Trachea d. Glottis e. Terminal bronchiole
- Carbon dioxide combines with hemoglobin to form: a. Deoxyhemoglobin b. Reduced hemoglobin c. Carbaminohemoglobin d. Carboxyhemoglobin e. None of the above
- Which statement about CO2 is INCORRECT? a. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation. b. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH. c. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs. d. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood. e. All of the above are incorrect.
- How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood? a. Chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells b. As the bicarbonate ion in the plasma c. As carbonic acid in the plasma d. Chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin e. None of the above
- The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________. a. Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts b. Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes c. Atria and alveolar sacs d. Respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs e. None of the above
- Which of the following muscles is LEAST involved in respiration? a. Diaphragm b. Pectoralis major c. External intercostals d. Internal intercostals e. Sternocleidomastoids
- During expiration, pressure would be greatest in which of the following? a. Terminal bronchiole b. Respiratory bronchiole c. Trachea d. Larynx
- Which of the following would have the highest PO2? a. Blood in a systemic vein b. Muscle tissue c. Blood in a pulmonary artery d. Blood in a pulmonary vein
- The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the a. Larynx b. Bronchioles c. Trachea d. Alveoli e. Bronchi
- Contraction of the diaphragm causes thoracic volume to ____________ and intrapulmonary pressure to _____________. a. Increase – increase b. Decrease – decrease c. Increase – decrease d. Decrease – increase
- Histamine will __________ bronchioles causing resistance to ________ and airflow to _____________. a. Constrict – increase – decrease b. Constrict – decrease – increase c. Dilate – increase – decrease d. Dilate – decrease – increase
- Which of the following muscles would contract most vigorously if you tried to blow out a candle? a. Diaphragm b. External intercostals c. Rectus abdominus d. Serratus anterior
- Pleural fluid does which of the following? a. Acts as a lubricant b. Helps hold the visceral and parietal pleural membranes together c. Acts as a surfactant d. Contracts during inspiration e. 2 of the above
- Peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the __________ and respond to ___________. a. Abdominal aorta – plasma pH b. Ventral medulla – CSF pH c. Bronchioles – oxygen tension d. Carotid sinus – plasma H+
- The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately a. 40 mmHg b. 45 mmHg c. 50 mmHg d. 70 mmHg e. 100 mmHg
- Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system? a. Singing b. Smelling c. Gas exchange d. All of the above e. Just 2 of the above
- Gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood is referred to as internal respiration. a. True b. False
- All structures of the conducting zone are superior to all structures of the respiratory zone. a. True b. False
- In order for inspiration to occur, atmospheric pressure must be less than intrapulmonary pressure. a. True b. False
- Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and its products include O2, CO2, and ATP. a. True b. False
73 Alveoli are the sites of gas exchange. a. True b. False
- The parietal pleura covers the superior surface of the diaphragm. a. True b. False 75. During inspiration the diaphragm relaxes and moves inferiorly. a. True b. False
- A large rise in lung compliance will make it difficult to: a. Inhale b. Exhale 77. Peripheral chemoreceptors are found in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses. a. True b. False 78. Consider the following statement: All laryngeal cartilages are made of hyaline cartilage. Which of the following is correct? a. The statement is true b. The statement is false because the thyroid cartilage is elastic cartilage c. The statement is false because the cricoid cartilage is fibrocartilage d. The statement is false because the glottis is elastic cartilage e. The statement is false because the epiglottis is elastic
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The trachea is reinforced by 60-80 C-shaped rings of cartilage b. The trachealis is the ligament that connects the anterior open portion of the tracheal cartiliginous rings c. The trachea is part of the respiratory zone d. The trachea is part of the conducting zone
- The binding of oxygen to hemoglobin is characterized as: a. Compliant b. Irreversible c. Reversible d. Noncompliant
- Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the: a. Trachea b. Pharynx c. Larynx d. Carina
- Total lung capacity is equal to: a. Vital capacity x Tidal volume b. Functional residual capacity + Expiratory reserve volume c. Anatomical dead space + Alveolar dead space d. Residual volume + Vital capacity 83. Which of these values would normally be the highest? a. Tidal Volume b. Inspiratory Reserve Volume c. Expiratory Reserve Volume d. Residual Volume e. Vital Capacity
- Most CO2 is transported in the blood in the form of: a. Dissolved gas b. Carbaminohemoglobin c. Bicarbonate ion d. Carboxyhemoglobin
- Which of the following cells produce surfactant in lung alveoli? a. Endothelial cells b. Clara cells c. Type I cells d. Type II cells e. Dust cells
- Progressing from the nasopharynx to the lung, alveoli are first encountered in which of the following? a. Trachea b. Bronchiole c. Terminal bronchiole d. Respiratory bronchiole e. Alveolar duc
- Which of the following structures does not have cartilage associated with it? a. Bronchiole b. Bronchi (small) c. Bronchi (large) d. Trachea e. Larynx
- The loudness of a person’s voice depends on: a. The thickness of the vestibular folds b. The length of the vocal folds c. The strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles d. The force with which air rushes through the glottis e. The thickness of the true vocal folds
- Inspiratory capacity is: a. The total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration b. The total amount of exchangeable air c. Another name for functional residual capacity d. The amount of air inspired after a tidal inspiration e. A and c are correct
- The nose serves all the following functions except: a. Passageway for air movement b. Olfaction c. Warming inspired air d. Filtering inspired air e. Removing water from inspired air
- Tidal volume is air: a. Remaining in the lungs after forced expiration b. Exchanged during normal breathing c. Inhaled after quiet inspiration d. Forcibly expelled after normal expiration
- Most inspired particles (e.g., dust) fail to reach the lungs because of the: a. Ciliated mucous lining in the nose b. Abundant blood supply to the nasal mucosa c. Porous structure of the conchae d. Contraction of the epiglottis e. 2 of the above
- Most oxygen carried in the blood is: a. In solution with the plasma b. Combined with plasma proteins c. Chemically combined with a heme group d. Carried as HCO3- e. Bound to the amino acid valine on the beta chain of hemoglobin
- The number of lobes in the right lung is ______________ the number of lobes in the left lung. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- The length of the right primary bronchus is _____________ the length of the left primary bronchus. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- During inspiration, atmospheric pressure is _____________ intrapulmonary pressure. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- Blood pH is typically between _____________. Hyperventilation will cause it to ____________. a. 7.2-7.3; increase b. 7.3-7.3; decrease c. 7.35-7.45; increase d. 7.35-7.45; decrease
- Which of the following does NOT belong? a. Trachea b. Nasal cavity c. Alveolus d. Pharynx e. Bronchus 98. Which of the following is NOT a component of the skeletal framework of the nose? a. Left nasal bone b. Right nasal bone c. Left maxillary bone d. Frontal bone e. Left zygomatic bone
- The most important receptors for respiration regulation are: a. Located in the brachial artery b. Most sensitive to changes in plasma PCO2 c. Affected by changes in CSF pH d. Not found in the brainstem e. Only located in atrial anastomoses
- Which of the following is an INCORRECT association? a. Anoxia – Deficiency of O2 b. Dyspnea – Labored breathing c. Apnea – Excessively high breathing rate d. Pleurisy – Inflammation of the pleura e. Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchi
- In order for inspiration to occur, intrapulmonary pressure must be higher than atmospheric pressure. a. The above statement is TRUE b. The above statement is FALSE
- Which of the following is closest to the hyoid bone? a. Frontal sinus b. Thyroid cartilage c. Cricoid cartilage d. Carina e. Ethmoid sinus
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The right primary bronchus is longer than the left primary bronchus. b. The apex of the lung is just deep to the 5th rib. c. The trachea lacks cartilage on its anterior surface. d. There are fewer secondary bronchi on the left than on the right.
- Carbon dioxide is mostly transported in the blood: a. Dissolved in the plasma b. Bound to the heme portion of hemoglobin c. Bound to the globin portion of hemoglobin d. Within bicarbonate ions e. Attached to oxygen via a disulfide bridge
- All of the following are causes of metabolic acidosis EXCEPT: a. Diabetes mellitus b. Excessive vomiting c. Renal disease d. Starvation
- Gas exchange between plasma and tissue fluid is __________ respiration. a. Internal b. External c. Systemic d. Cellular
- Which of the following is NOT lined by the parietal pleura? a. Lungs b. Superior surface of the diaphragm c. Lateral thoracic wall d. Anterior thoracic wall
- During swallowing the epiglottis moves ___________ to cover the opening to the _________. a. Down – larynx b. Up – larynx c. Down – nasopharynx d. Up – nasopharynx
- During inspiration which of the following would be passed LAST by an oxygen molecule? a. Tertiary bronchus b. Carina c. Oropharynx d. True vocal cords
- Which of the following is the SMALLEST? a. Total number of bones that contain paranasal sinuses b. Total number of lung lobes c. Total number of tertiary bronchi d. Total number of bones that make up the hard palate
- The amount of air remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration is known as the: a. Functional vital capacity b. Tidal volume c. Expiratory reserve volume d. Residual volume e. Expiratory capacity
- Pain and emotions have NO effect on respiration rate or depth. a. This statement is TRUE b. This statement is FALSE
- The nutrient blood supply of the lungs is supplied by the: a. Pulmonary arteries b. Descending aorta c. Pulmonary veins d. Ligamentum arteriosum e. Bronchial arteries
- During inspiration, a molecule of oxygen would pass thru: a. The laryngopharynx before the oropharynx b. A tertiary bronchus before the pharynx c. A respiratory bronchiole before an alveolar duct d. The trachea before the glottis e. None of the above are correct
- Breathing through one’s mouth rather than through one’s nose would cause: a. A decrease in the humidification of the inspired air b. The inspired air to arrive at the lungs at a higher temperature c. The amount of particular matter that entered the trachea to be lower d. An increase in the water content of the air reaching the alveoli e. None of the above 116. Which of the following is TRUE of inspiration? a. It is an entirely voluntary process b. It involves neurons in the brainstem and skeletal muscle in the thorax c. It is usually passive and occasionally active d. In order for it to occur, intrapulmonary pressure must be less than intrapleural pressure e. 2 of the above
- The total volume of air that one can inhale is known as the inspiratory reserve volume. a. The above statement is TRUE b. The above statement is FALSE
- Cellular respiration is responsible for: a. High PO2 in the systemic tissues b. Low PO2 in the alveoli c. High PCO2 in the systemic tissue d. High PO2 in the alveoli e. None of the above
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. Gas exchange occurs primarily in the conducting zones, e.g., the alveoli b. The external nose lacks cartilage c. A cross section of the soft palate would contain significant amounts of osseous tissue d. Nasal conchae increase the time required for air to pass through the nasal cavity e. The pharynx is lined entirely by respiratory epithelium
- The exchange of gases between alveolar air and the blood is: a. Cellular respiration b. Aerobic respiration c. Internal respiration d. External respiration e. Anaerobic respiration
- Which of the following muscles are NOT involved in inspiration? a. Diaphragm b. Scalenes c. Sternocleidomastoids d. Internal intercostals e. 2 of the above 122, Which of the following is TRUE? a. All laryngeal cartilages are hyaline cartilage b. The largest of the laryngeal cartilages is the cricoid cartilage c. The epiglottis functions to prevent the entry of food and liquid into the trachea d. Terminal bronchioles are the last portion of the conducting zone e. 2 of the above
- Surfactant: a. Protects the surface of the lungs from resident roundworms b. Phagocytizes small particulates. c. Replaces mucus in the alveoli. d. Helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing. e. Is not found in healthy lung tissue.
- The function of the nasal conchae is to: a. Divide the nasal cavity into a right and a left side. b. Provide an opening into the pharynx. c. Provide a surface for the sense of smell. d. Create turbulence in the air so as to trap small particulates in mucus. e. Provide an opening to the outside of the body.
125 Functions of the nasal cavity include all of the following, EXCEPT: a. Filtering the air. b. Warming the air. c. Humidifying the air. d. Acting as a reservoir during coughing. e. Acting as a resonating chamber in speech.
- The hard palate separates the: a. Nasal cavity from the larynx. b. Left and right sides of the nasal cavity. c. Nasal cavity and the oral cavity. d. External nares from the internal nares. e. Soft palate from the nasal cavity.
- The larynx is composed of _______ cartilages. a. 2 b. 3 c. 6 d. 9 e. 12
- The ‘glottis’ is: a. The inferior margin of the soft palate. b. A flap of elastic cartilage. c. The opening to the larynx. d. The opening to the pharynx. e. Part of the hard palate. 129 The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the ________ cartilage. a. Thyroid b. Cricoid c. Corniculate d. Cuneiform e. Epiglottic
- Secondary bronchi specifically supply air to the: a. Lungs. b. Lobes of the lungs. c. Lobules of the lungs. d. Alveoli. e. Alveolar ducts.
- The following is a list of some of the structures of the respiratory tree: 1. Secondary bronchi 2. Bronchioles 3. Alveolar ducts 4. Primary bronchi 5. Respiratory bronchioles 6. Alveoli 7. Terminal bronchioles The order in which air passes through these structures is: a. 4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6 b. 4, 1, 2, 5, 7, 3, 6 c. 1, 4, 2, 5, 7, 3, 6 d. 1, 4, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6 e. 2, 4, 1, 7, 5, 3, 6
- The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are: a. Bronchioles. b. Alveolar ducts. c. Pleural spaces d. Alveoli. e. Terminal sacs. 133. Air moves into the lungs because: a. The gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure b. The volume of the lungs decreases with inspiration. c. The thorax is devoid of neuroregulatory tissue. d. Contraction of the diaphragm decreases the volume of the pleural cavity. e. None of the above
- The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately a. 40 mmHg b. 45 mmHg c. 50 mmHg d. 70 mmHg e. 100 mmHg
- Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the _______ muscle(s). a. Scalenes b. Diaphragm c. Internal intercostals d. External intercostals e. All of the above
- In quiet breathing: a. Inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions. b. Inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions. c. Inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive. d. Inspiration and expiration are both passive processes. e. None of the above
- Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the: a. Trachea b. Pharynx c. Oropharynx d. Larynx e. Carina
- If a molecule of oxygen enters the respiratory zone. It must have just exited: a. The exchange zone b. A respiratory bronchiole c. A terminal bronchus d. An alveolar conduction zone e. A terminal bronchiole
- Respiratory control centers are located in the: a. Midbrain and medulla b. Pons and medulla c. Pons and midbrain d. Midbrain and conus medullaris e. None of the above
- If you were trying to inflate a balloon: a. Your diaphragm would contract b. Your external intercostals would contract c. Your internal intercostals would contract d. Your sartorius would contract e. Your psoas major would contract
- Hypocapnia would cause an increase in the acidity of the plasma. a. The above statement is TRUE b. The above statement is FALSE
- Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues? a. Decreased temperature b. Decreased pH c. Increased tissue PO2 d. Decreased amounts of carbon dioxide e. All of the above
- When the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract: a. Expiration occurs. b. Intrapulmonary pressure increases. c. Intrapleural pressure decreases. d. The volume of the lungs decreases. e. None of the above
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The epiglottis covers the glottis during swallowing b. The esophagus is anterior to the trachea c. The thyroid and cricoid cartilages are composed of elastic cartilage d. The trachea divides into the 3 primary bronchi in the mediastinum e. 2 of the above
- Which of the following is INCORRECT? a. Rhinitis – inflammation of the nasal cavity b. Apnea – breathing cessation c. Dyspnea – labored breathing d. Cheyne-stokes breathing – breathing normal for a pregnant woman e. Pleurisy – inflammation of the pleura
- Which of the following is TRUE of the larynx? a. The smallest laryngeal cartilage is the thyroid cartilage b. The cricoid cartilage is the most superior of the laryngeal cartilages c. The true vocal cords are inferior to the false vocal cords d. Air does not normally pass through the glottis e. All of the above
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. Smoking stimulates cilia development and motility b. The trachea contains bone but no cartilage c. The right primary bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left. d. Tertiary bronchi typically have larger diameters than the secondary bronchi. e. O2 is the only gas ever present in the alveoli of the lungs.
- Which of the following is TRUE of the lungs? a. They occupy the entire mediastinum b. The 2 lungs share a single pleural cavity c. Pulmonary arteries enter the lungs at the hilus d. The majority of the lungs is composed of muscle tissue e. Deep to the 12th rib is the apex of the lung
- Which of the following is TRUE? a. The trachea is part of the anatomical dead space b. Gas exchange across the respiratory membrane is primarily active transport c. HbCO2 is known as saturated oxyhemoglobin d. All of the above e. None of the above
- Cyanide poisoning interferes with mitochondrial function. Thus, cyanide would most greatly impact: a. Pulmonary ventilation b. External respiration c. Internal respiration d. Cellular respiration e. Breathing
- Which of the following does NOT occur in the conducting zone? a. Warming of air b. Humidification of air c. Filtering of air d. Gas exchange e. Mucus production
- Which of the following is NOT part of the respiratory zone? a. Alveolus b. Alveolar sac c. Alveolar duct d. Respiratory bronchiole e. Carina
- Which of the following is NOT TRUE? a. The vomer forms part of the nasal septum. b. The maxillary bone forms part of the hard palate. c. Nasal conchae increase air speed through the nasal cavity. d. Respiratory epithelium contains pseudostratified cells. e. The internal nares connect the nasal cavity and the pharynx. 154. An individual who had O-shaped rings of tracheal cartilage would have difficulty: a. Licking a lollipop. b. Drinking a Miller Lite. c. Whistling. d. Smiling.
- Swallowing an entire hamburger.
- During inspiration: a. Atmospheric pressure > Intrapulmonary pressure b. Intrapleural pressure > Intrapulmonary pressure c. Intrapulmonary pressure > Atmospheric pressure d. Atmospheric pressure = Intrapulmonary pressure e. Intrapulmonary pressure = Intrapleural pressure
- Which of the following is an accessory muscle of expiration? a. External intercostal b. Rectus abdominus c. Sternocleidomastoid d. Pectoralis minor e. Internal anal sphincter
- Difficulty in expelling CO2 due to emphysema could cause: a. Pyloric stenosis b. Respiratory acidosis c. Respiratory alkalosis d. Appendicitis e. Abnormally high plasma pH
- Which of the following is the most ANTERIOR? a. Nasopharynx b. Pharyngeal tonsil c. Internal nares d. Nasal conchae e. External nares
- Which of the following is FARTHEST from the nasal cavity? a. Opening to the auditory tube b. Palatine tonsils c. True vocal cords d. False vocal cords e. Epiglottis
- Which of the following characteristics of the trachea facilitates expansion of the esophagus? a. The lining of the trachea is ciliated. b. The trachea contains mucous glands and goblet cells. c. The trachea contains C-shaped rings of cartilage. d. The trachea terminates at the carina and splits into the 4 primary bronchi. e. All of the above
- Which of the following would be most likely to cause lung collapse? a. If atmospheric pressure was greater than alveolar pressure. b. If alveolar pressure was greater than atmospheric pressure. c. If intrapulmonary pressure was greater than intrapleural pressure. d. If intrapleural pressure was greater than intrapulmonary pressure. e. Both A and B are correct. 162. A(n)______________ in thoracic pressure occurs during ________________. a. Increase; inspiration b. Increase; expiration c. Decrease; inspiration d. Decrease; expiration e. 2 of the above are correct.
- In which of the following would the PO2 be the greatest? a. Pulmonary artery b. Inferior vena cava c. Superior vena cava d. Mitochondria of a muscle cell performing anaerobic respiration. e. Pulmonary vein
- During intense aerobic exercise, you would expect: a. Plasma PCO2 to decrease. b. Saturation of hemoglobin in systemic veins to increase. c. Saturation of hemoglobin in systemic veins to decrease d. Hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen to increase. e. All of the above 165. As a red blood cell travels from a systemic arteriole to a systemic venule, its: a. Oxygen content will increase. b. Oxygen content will stay the same. c. Chloride content will increase. d. Chloride content will stay the same. e. None of the above.
- Which of the following is NOT a cause of metabolic acidosis? a. Diarrhea b. Vomiting c. Untreated diabetes mellitus d. Renal disease e. Excess alcohol ingestion
- The larynx: a. Directly links the laryngopharynx to the gastroesophageal junction. b. Has 6 unpaired and 3 paired cartilages c. Is lined entirely by simple squamous epithelium d. Is superior to the carina and just posterior to the esophagus e. None of the above
- Enlargement of the ________________ can interfere with normal breathing and the passage of air through the auditory tubes. a. Pharyngeal tonsil b. Parotid tonsil c. Carina d. Epiglottis e. Cecum
- The amount of O2 released from hemoglobin at a cell whose PO2 is 40 mmHg when plasma pH is 7.4 is ____________________ than the amount of O2 released from hemoglobin at a cell whose PO2 is 40 mmHg when plasma pH is 7.2. a. More than b. Less than c. The same as 170. The PO2 of the blood: a. Is directly related to the amount of O2 dissolved in the plasma. b. Has no relation to the saturation of hemoglobin. c. Is always lower than the PCO2 of the blood. d. Is higher in the veins than in the arteries. e. Determines the PO2 of the alveoli.
- Ventilation rate in response to metabolic alkalosis is __________ ventilation rate in response to metabolic acidosis. a. Greater than b. Less than c. The same as
- The pH of the blood is: a. Neutral b. Slightly Basic c. Slightly Acidic d. Extremely Acidic e. Extremely Basic
173 The diaphragm is: a. is made of specialized connective tissue b. An organ and muscle c. A muscle only d. An organ Only e. None of the above are true
- Anaerobic metabolism is best described as: a. metabolism that takes place yielding little or no oxygen. b. metabolism that takes place yielding a significant amount of oxygen. c. metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen. d. metabolism that takes place without the absence of oxygen. e. None of the above are true
- Aerobic metabolism is best described as: a. metabolism that takes place yielding little or no oxygen. b. metabolism that takes place yielding a significant amount of oxygen. c. metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen. d. metabolism that takes place without the absence of oxygen. e. None of the above are true
SECTION III-PROFESSOR X & THE NUMBER CHALLENGE
Well, I will count off numbers such as 1, 2 , 3, 4 , 5 , or 90, 91, 92, 93, maybe 10 at a time, in random sequential orders. The first member of the group in front of the line to hit the buzzer/light and associates that number with a SPECIFIC REFERENCE to the RESPIRATORY TOPIC gets that right. So if I go 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and I am buzzed to stop at 12 and you say…12 to 20 times per minute, normal range for adult respirations– you will be awarded points for that right answer. or if I go 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and you buzz in and say…35-45 mmHg normal range for partial pressure for carbon dioxide the blood….you will be awarded points. First to buzz in gets to answer.
Even so, The group with the most points at the end…wins that completion. Once again, in each group exercise…YOU HAVE TO HOLD YOUR OWN WEIGHT. BYSTANDERS OR SPECTATORS IN THE GROUP WILL NOT BE AWARDD ANYTHING. EVERYONE MUST PARTICIPATE TO WIN PRIZE. EVERONE WILL TURN IN A WORKSHEET THAT WILL BE HANDED OUT. IT MUST BE TURNED IN AT THE END HIGHLIGHTING YOUR EFFORTS. Remember, winner receives 5 points towards their next quiz. So…practice you numbers:) SPECIAL NOTE: IF YOUR GROUP WINS 2 of the 3 SECTIONS IN THE COMPETITION…YOU WILL NOT HAVE TO TAKE THE NEXT RESPIRATORY QUIZ. YOU HEARD ME RIGHT, YOU WILL BE AWARDED 100 POINTS! HAPPY STUDIESJ Prof Xavier