Respiratory System Recap

Respiratory System

Learning Objectives

After Reviewing these exercises, you will be able to:

 • Define and spell the word parts used to create terms for the respiratory system.
• Break down and define common medical terms used for symptoms, diseases, disorders, procedures, treatments, and devices associated with the respiratory system.
• Build medical terms from the word parts associated with the respiratory system.
• Pronounce and spell common medical terms associated with the respiratory system.

Self-Assessment Worksheet 1

Phonetic Spelling Challenge
spell the medical term correctly in the space provided.
1. at eh LEK tah siss ____________________________
2. kroop ____________________________
3. NOO moh THOH raks ____________________________
4. too BER kyoo LOH siss ____________________________
5. loh BEK toh mee ____________________________
6. rye NyE tiss ____________________________
7. PLoo ral eh Fyoo zhun ____________________________
8. ep ih glah TyE tiss ____________________________
9. SISS tik fye BROH siss ____________________________
10. brong KyE tiss ____________________________
11. LAIR in JyE tiss ____________________________
12. em fih sEE mah ____________________________
13. PULL mon air ee EM boh lizm ____________________________
14. koh RYE zah ____________________________
15. em fih sEE mah ____________________________
16. ah KAP nee ah ____________________________
17. high pahk SEE mee ah ____________________________
18. noo moh Koh nee oh siss ____________________________
19. ass pih RAy shun ____________________________
20. aw skull TAY shun ____________________________

Spelling Challenge
These terms are spelled incorrectly. spell each term correctly in the space provided.
1. Respirration ____________________________
2. Dysfonia ____________________________
3. Kine-Strokes respiration ____________________________
4. hyperpnia ____________________________
5. Laringospasm ____________________________
6. Asma ____________________________
7. Emfisema ____________________________
8. Bronkitis ____________________________
9. Appnea ____________________________
10. Bronchiactasis ____________________________
11. Tubberculossis ____________________________
12. Addenoiectomy ____________________________
13. Bronkoscopie ____________________________
14. Nebulyzer ____________________________
15. Mechanecal ventelation ____________________________

Abbreviation Matchup
select and match the correct abbreviation to the definition.
1. pulmonary embolism
_______ 2. cystic fibrosis
3. chest x-ray
4. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
5. tuberculosis
6. acid-fast bacilli
7. neonatal respiratory distress
8. upper respiratory infection
9. arterial blood gases
10. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a. TB
b. AFB
d. PE
e. CPR
f. ABGs
g. CXR
i. URI
j. CF

Self-Assessment Worksheet 2

Mark each statement as true (T) or false (F).
_______1. A reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body’s gas exchange demands is
called hyperventilation.
_______2. Abnormally shallow breathing is called hypopnea.
_______3. A nosebleed is clinically called hemoptysis.
_______ 4. A narrowing of the airway by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the
tiny tubes within the lungs known as bronchioles is called bradypnea.
_______5. The common term for atelectasis is collapsed lung.
_______6. Another name for pertussis is whooping cough.
_______7. A blood clot that moves along with the bloodstream is called an embolism.
_______8. A respiratory disease that is characterized by atelectasis known as respiratory distress syndrome.
_______ 9. Effusion refers to the leakage of fluid.
_______10. A fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and
other organs, is called coryza.

Fill in the Blank
Fill in the blank with the correct medical term from this chapter.
11. Bronchogenic carcinoma is the most common form of ____________________________.
12. This hereditary lung disease strikes 1 in roughly 2,500 children and is commonly fatal due to
lung destruction before the age of 30 years. ____________________________
13. The symptoms of this lung disease arise when the alveoli lose their elasticity, causing them to
burst, which reduces the efficiency of gas exchange. ____________________________
14. Inflammation of the nose and pharynx is called ____________________________.
15. The most common cause of adenocarcinoma of the lung is ____________________________.
16. In the disease ____________________________ ____________________________, fluid leakage
occurs into the pleural cavity.
17. Inflammation of the pleural membranes is called ____________________________.
18. Inflammation of the lungs caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles is called

19. An inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause is called
20. A(n) ____________________________ is the abnormal presence of air or gas within the
pleural cavity.

Short Answer
Write the definition for each of the following terms.
21. Pneumonia _____________________________________________________________
22. Pyothorax _____________________________________________________________
23. Tracheitis _____________________________________________________________
24. Adenoidectomy _____________________________________________________________
25. Aspiration _____________________________________________________________

Word Search
Fill in the blank with the correct medical term from this review, then find the words in the word
search puzzle that follows.
1. Inflammation of one or more tonsils is called ____________________________.
2. A therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines is called a(n)
3. A surgical incision into the chest wall is called a(n) ____________________________.
4. A simple skin test to determine the presence of a tuberculosis infection is called a(n) TB
____________________________ test.
5. surgical repair of the nose is called ____________________________.
6. A physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower respiratory tract,
particularly the lungs, is called a(n) ____________________________ specialist.
7. Surgical puncture into the thoracic cavity to aspirate fluid is called a(n)
8. surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung is sometimes required as a treatment
for lung cancer, if the tumor is isolated to one lobe. The procedure is called a(n)
9. An acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
that produces spasmodic coughing is called ____________________________.

10. A severe hereditary disease characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract,
digestive tract, and elsewhere is called cystic ____________________________.
11. An aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi is known as
____________________________ carcinoma.
12. A condition of the lungs that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles
and formation of mucus plugs is known as ____________________________.
13. Inflammation of the epiglottis is called ____________________________.
14. The symptom of coughing up and spitting out blood is called

Dictation Report
Write each numbered term as you hear it, spelling each term correctly. This exercise will help you
learn to hear, comprehend, visualize, and spell the new medical terms accurately.
Understanding the (1) ____________________________ system is essential for any doctor. A
doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disease of the respiratory system is sometimes
called a(n) (2) ____________________________. Working with the pulmonary specialist is the doctor who diagnoses and treats disease of the pharynx, called the (3) ____________________________.
If cancer is diagnosed, the patient is likely to be referred to a doctor called a(n)
(4) ____________________________. The medical specialist who delivers breathing treatments is
called a(n) (5) ____________________________.
A patient with a respiratory problem might have something as minor and simple as
the common cold or (6) ____________________________, or something as serious and complex as (7) ____________________________. When a section of the respiratory tract becomes
inflamed or infected, the condition is named after the part that is affected. For example, if
a patient has (8) ____________________________, he has an inflammation of the bronchi. If a
patient has (9) ____________________________, she has an inflammation of the larynx. If a
patient has (10) ____________________________, he has an inflammation of the epiglottis.
(11) ____________________________ is inflammation of the nose and pharynx.
Infections of the respiratory system can happen to anyone, from the very young to the very
old. A viral infectious disease that is relatively common among infants and young children that produces a characteristic hoarse cough is commonly known as (12) ____________________________.
some children are born with (13) ____________________________, which is a hereditary disorder. Many children used to die of (14) ____________________________, or whooping cough,

before a vaccination was developed. Smoking causes many respiratory diseases, including
(15) ____________________________ of the lung and (16) ____________________________. older
adults can suffer from (17) ____________________________ and (18) ____________________________.
Many surgical procedures are performed on the respiratory structures, including
( 1 9 ) ____________________________, ( 2 0 ) ____________________________, a n d
(21) ____________________________. Many treatments are conducted on patients with
respiratory problems to diagnose and treat patients and to help them breathe better.
These include (22) ____________________________, (23) ____________________________,
(24) ____________________________, and (25) ____________________________.
It is important to maintain good respiratory health throughout your lifetime to avoid problems. It is wise to learn (26) ____________________________, for those you love and care for. If you
have (27) ____________________________, be sure to monitor your breathing regularly with a(n)
(28) ____________________________, and use a(n) (29) ____________________________ as ordered
by your physician. (30) _____________________________ can be helpful when you have a cold. Above all, to maintain good respiratory health, don’t smoke.

Self-Assessment Worksheet 3
Word Surgery
Read the Medical Word. Break down the medical word into its word parts, and give the meaning
of each word part. Then give the definition of the medical word.
1. Bronchoscopy
Definition: ____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
2. Tachypnea
Definition: ____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
3. Euphonia
Definition: ____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
4. Rhinorrhea
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
5. Thoracocentesis
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
6. hypercapnea
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
222 Chapter 9/ ThE REsPIRAToRy sysTEM © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Wingerd, In-Class Activities to Accompany Medical Terminology Complete!, 2nd Edition
7. hypoxemia
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
8. Laryngectomy
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
9. spirometer
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
10. Atelectasis
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
11. hemoptysis
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
12. Tracheostenosis
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
13. Epiglottitis
Definition: _____________________________________________________________________
Prefix and definition: ____________________________________________________________
Combining form and definition: __________________________________________________
suffix and definition: ____________________________________________________________

Self-Assessment Worksheet 4
Case Study
Fill in the blank with the correct medical term from this chapter.
Robert is seen in the emergency room with elevated temperature, difficult breathing, and cough
productive of greenish sputum. These symptoms started earlier in the day. he had previously had
symptoms of sore throat, runny nose, and low-grade temperature. In the emergency room the physician assistant examines the patient and finds him to have rapid breathing, elevated temperature, and
a low oxygen level. The lungs are examined with a stethoscope by a process that is called auscultation. The findings showed inflammation and infection of the soft tissues of the lung. A radiology
study, called a chest x-ray, is performed that confirms the findings on auscultation. This group of
symptoms, signs, and studies resulted in the diagnosis of pneumonia.
What is the appropriate medical terminology for:
1. Difficult breathing ____________________________
2. Elevated temperature __________________________
3. sore and inflamed throat ______________________
4. Rapid breathing ______________________________
5. Low oxygen level _____________________________

Self-Assessment Worksheet 5

Medical Report Analysis
Consider the following excerpt from a clinician’s notes following completion of a respiratory
examination. For the highlighted terms or word parts, provide the meaning.
Patient is a 6-year-old male presenting to an urgent care facility for difficulty breathing. Parent indicates the patient has had persistent cold type symptoms for more than one week. Last
night the child was noted to have a violent cough and difficulty sleeping. This prompted today’s
visit. The child was noted to be tachypneic (A) ____________________________ and dyspneic
(B) ____________________________. Abnormal breath sounds and high-pitched cough accompanied by fever are suggestive of laryngeotracheobronchitis (C) ____________________________.
The child was given an injection to manage the viral infection. however, due to the child
being unimmunized, a chest x-ray was ordered and showed evidence of active pneumonitis
(D) ____________________________ suggestive of tuberculosis (E) ____________________________.
Antibiotic therapy was begun immediately and will be maintained over the next six months.
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9/ ThE REsPIRAToRy sysTEM 225
Wingerd, In-Class Activities to Accompany Medical Terminology Complete!, 2nd Edition

Self-Assessment Worksheet 6
Which Term Does Not Belong?
Circle the term that is not related to the other terms. Then explain why the term does not belong
with the others.
1. Prefixes
a. anb. bradyc. dysd. hypoe. pneaWhy does it not belong? ___________________________________________________________
2. signs and symptoms
a. alveoli
b. bradypnea
c. dysphonia
d. hemoptysis
e. hypoxemia
Why does it not belong? ___________________________________________________________
3. Root words
a. hyper
b. myc
c. pneum
d. py
e. rhin
Why does it not belong? ___________________________________________________________
4. Diseases and conditions
a. asthma
b. emphysema
c. legionellosis
d. nasopharyngitis
e. pneumonectomy
Why does it not belong? ___________________________________________________________

5. Treatments and procedures
a. adenoidectomy
b. bronchoscopy
c. laryngitis
d. pleurocentesis
e. tracheostomy
Why does it not belong? ___________________________________________________________

Self-Assessment Worksheet 7
Label the diagram below.

Image result for respiratory system label bronchioles
Now, Compare Your Answers
Image result for respiratory system label bronchials

Self-Assessment Worksheet 8

1) Which of the choices below is not a functional process performed by the respiratory system? A) pulmonary ventilation B) transport of respiratory gases C) external respiration D) pulmonary respiration

2) The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the ________. A) thickness of vestibular folds B) length of the vocal folds C) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

3) The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________. A) secrete surfactant B) trap dust and other debris C) replace mucus in the alveoli D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

4) Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is A) less than the pressure in the atmosphere. B) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere. C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere. D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

5) Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors? A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid B) the expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall C) the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant D) combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveoli

6) Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea? A) surface tension of water B) surfactant C) cartilage rings D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

7) Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________. A) pressure within the pleural cavity B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

8) The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________. A) Boyle’s law B) Henry’s law C) Charles’ law D) Dalton’s law

9) The statement, “in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture” paraphrases ________. A) Henry’s law B) Boyle’s law C) Dalton’s law D) Charles’ law

10) Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________. A) humidifying the air before it enters B) warming the air before it enters C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

11) For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________. A) at least 3 micrometers thick B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

12) With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________. A) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond C) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond D) increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

13) The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________. A) loss of oxygen in tissues B) increase of carbon dioxide C) pH (acidosis) D) pH (alkalosis)

14) Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration. A) the ventral respiratory group B) the chemoreceptor center C) Broca’s center D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

15) In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________. A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

16) Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid. B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants. C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing. D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.

17) Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs? A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid B) compliance and transpulmonary pressures C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

18) Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated? A) psychic stimuli B) decrease in lactic acid levels C) proprioceptors D) simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center

19) Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer? A) adenocarcinoma B) Kaposi’s sarcoma C) small cell carcinoma D) squamous cell carcinoma

20) Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2? A) pulmonary ventilation B) blood pH adjustment C) internal respiration D) external respiration

21) Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli? A) Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles. B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter. C) Proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly. D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli.

22) Which of the following determines lung compliance? A) airway opening B) flexibility of the thoracic cage C) muscles of inspiration D) alveolar surface tension

23) Tidal volume is air ________. A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration B) exchanged during normal breathing C) inhaled after normal inspiration D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

24) Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement? A) solubility in water B) partial pressure gradient C) the temperature D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

25) Possible causes of hypoxia include ________. A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere B) obstruction of the esophagus C) taking several rapid deep breaths D) getting very cold

26) The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________. A) tidal volume B) vital capacity C) inspiratory capacity D) expiratory reserve volume

27) Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange? A) Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus. B) Respiratory exchanges are not necessary. C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta. D) Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange.

28) Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing? A) rising carbon dioxide levels B) rising blood pressure C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg D) arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

29) Respiratory control centers are located in the ________. A) midbrain and medulla B) medulla and pons C) pons and midbrain D) upper spinal cord and medulla

30) The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________. A) reserve air B) expiratory reserve C) inspiratory reserve D) vital capacity

31) Which statement about CO2 is incorrect? A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation. B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH. C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs. D) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.

32) Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________. A) osmosis B) diffusion C) filtration D) active transport

33) Select the correct statement about the pharynx. A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx. B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx. C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx. D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

34) The larynx contains ________. A) the thyroid cartilage B) a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam’s apple C) an upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds D) lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds

35) Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon? A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

36) How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood? A) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells C) as carbonic acid in the plasma D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

37) Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung? A) middle lobe B) cardiac notch C) horizontal fissure D) oblique fissure

38) Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura? A) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction B) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers C) helps limit the spread of local infections D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

40) Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________. A) thalamic control B) voluntary cortical control C) stretch receptors in the alveoli D) composition of alveolar air

41) Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange? A) alveolar sacs B) alveoli C) respiratory bronchioles D) alveolar ducts

42) The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________. A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes C) atria and alveolar sacs D) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

43) Gas emboli may occur because a ________. A) person holds his breath too long B) diver holds his breath upon ascent C) pilot holds her breath upon descent D) person breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber

44) Inspiratory capacity is ________. A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration B) the total amount of exchangeable air C) functional residual capacity D) air inspired after a tidal inhalation

45) Which center is located in the pons? A) pontine respirator group (PRG) B) expiratory C) inspiratory D) pacemaker neuron center

46) The nose serves all the following functions except ________. A) as a passageway for air movement B) as the initiator of the cough reflex C) warming and humidifying the air D) cleansing the air

47) A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________. A) 17 weeks B) 24 weeks C) 28 weeks D) 36 weeks

48) Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn? A) The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow. B) The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants. C) The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute. D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

49) Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control. A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration. B) The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the pattern of breathing. C) The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive. D) The ventral respiratory group is contained within the pons.

50) Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin? A) partial pressure of oxygen B) temperature C) partial pressure of carbon dioxide D) number of red blood cells

51) The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________. A) the smooth muscles of the lung B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

52) The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________. A) temperature is lower at higher altitudes B) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes C) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

53) Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________. A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose B) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa C) porous structure of turbinate bones D) action of the epiglottis

54) Which of the following is not possible? A) Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance. B) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance. C) Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow. D) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli.

55) Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation. A) A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation. B) A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation. C) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required. D) Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension.

56) Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood: A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2. B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently. C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity. D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

57) Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation? A) pneumonia B) tuberculosis C) emphysema D) coryza

57. Which is the last stop of the urinary track?
  • A. Bladder
  • B. Ureter
  • C. Urethra
  • D. Kidney
  • 2. Which part of the brain detects the amount of CO2 in the blood?
    • A. Medulla oblongata
    • B. Tectum
    • C. Cerebellum
    • D. Pons
  • 3. The act of knowing  you have lots of CO2 and wanting to breathe because of it is called…
    • A. Respiration
    • B. Osmosis
    • C. Photosynthesis
    • D. A feedback mechanism
  • 4. Why is it impossible to hold your breath and die?
    • A. Because you’ll pass out and begin breathing again.
    • B.  Because you can’t hold your breath in your hands.
    • C. Because there’s so much oxygen in your blood, you’ll live forever.
    • D. You don’t need to breathe.
  • 5. Which malfunction of the respiratory system is the destruction of alveolar walls?
    • A. Bronchitis
    • B. Pneumonia
    • C. Emphysema
    • D. Asthma
  • 6. If someone smokes cigarettes constantly for a long time, their alveoli will eventually be coated with tar. This is bad because…
    • A. It does not as good as when they are not coated.
    • B. Its more difficult to diffuse things in and out of the lungs.
    • C. The alveoli cannot move as well when they are coated.
    • D. The alveoli does not have room to grow.
  • 7. Pneumonia is the…
    • A. Swelling of the throat.
    • B. Loss of red blood cells.
    • C. Building up of fluids in the lungs.
    • D. Inflammation of the bronchi.
  • 8. Which is not correct about what lungs excrete?
    • A. Water
    • B. Carbon Dioxide
    • C. Heat
    • D. Energy
  • 9. Which organ breaks down old red blood cells and stores iron for hemoglobin?
    • A. Brain
    • B. Lungs
    • C. Kidney
    • D. Liver
  • 10. The liver also makes ____ from old amino acids.
    • A. Urea
    • B. CO2
    • C. Heat
    • D. Energy
  • 11. Skin and sweat glands excrete 3 main things. Which of these do they not excrete?
    • A. Water
    • B. Carbon dioxide
    • C. Salts
    • D. Some urea
  • 12.
    The skin and sweat glands also reduce body temperature to maintain…
    • A. Energetic
    • B. Alive
    • C. Homeostasis
    • D. The correct ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen.
  • 13. Which organ(s) collects and excretes urea, excess salts, and water?
    • A. Lungs
    • B. Liver
    • C. Small intestine
    • D. Kidneys
  • 14. The functional unit of the kidney is the…
    • A. Nephron
    • B. Alveoli
    • C. Mitochondria
    • D. Ribosomes
  • 15.
    The loop of henle is so long to increase…
    • A. Time
    • B. Surface area
    • C. Reproduction of cells
    • D. Oxygen productions
  • 16. True or false. There is a reabsorbing capillary in the nephron to reabsorb nutrients that were just put into the loop of henle.
    • A. True
    • B. False
  • 17. The loop of henle absorbs metabolic wastes from the…
    • A. Arterioles
    • B. Venuoles
    • C. Glomerulus
    • D. Capillaries
  • 18. The kidney leads to the ureter, which leads to the…
    • A. Liver
    • B. Adrena gland
    • C. Urinary bladder
    • D. Urethra
  • 19. When urine urine is yellow, that means you are…
    • A. Dehydrated
    • B. Hydrated
    • C. Sick
    • D. Healthy
  • 20. The nasal chamber does what to incoming air?
    • A. Absorbs it
    • B. Speeds it up
    • C. Warms it
    • D. Stops it




Comments are Closed on this Post